The Rulings Concerning The Two Eids From The Purified Sunnah
First: The ‘Eid prayer is two rak’ahs and this is taken from the narration of ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “The prayer of travelling is two rak’ahs, the prayer of ‘Adhaa is two rak’ahs and the prayer of Fitr is two rak’ahs. They are complete, not shortened and this is taken from the word of the Prophet (SAW)”74
Second: The first rak’ah begins, just like all other prayers, by the Takbeerat-ul-Ihraam*, then by making seven more takbeers, and in the second rak’ah – five takbeers are made excluding the takbeer of standing back up.
‘Aaishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) in the Fitr and ‘Adhaa prayers used to make takbeer – in the first rak’ah seven takbeers and in the second rak’ah five takbeers other than the two takbeers of ruku”75
Imaam al-Baghawee said: “This is the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from the Companions and those after them – that one makes takbeer in the ‘Eid prayer; in the first rak’ah seven times other than the opening takbeer and in the second rak’ah five times other than the takbeer of standing back up before reciting. This is reported upon Aboo Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Alee and..”76
Third: It has not been authentically reported from the Prophet (SAW) that he used to raise his hands with the takbeers of ‘Eid.77
However Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Ibn ‘Umar with his adherent following of the Sunnah used to raise his hands with each takbeer”78
I say: The best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAW).
Our shaykh – al-Albaanee said in Tamaamul-Minnah p.348: “That fact that it is reported from ‘Umar and his son does not make it a sunnah, especially when the reports from ‘Umar and his son are not authentic. As for what is reported from ‘Umar then it is transmitted by al-Baihaqee with a weak chain of narration and as for what is reported for his son, then as of yet I have not come across it.”
Our Shaykh also says: in Ahkaam-ul-Jana’iz (p.148) in a matter similar to this: “He who thinks that he – Ibn ‘Umar – would not do this except by permission from the prophet (SAW) then he should raise his hands”
Fourth: No specific supplication in between the ‘Eid takbeers has been authentically reported from the Prophet (SAW). However it has been established upon Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said regarding the ‘Eid prayer: “In between every two takbeers, is the praising of Allaah, the Mighty and Sublime, and the sending of praise upon Allaah.”79
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) said: “He (SAW) used to pause for a little while in between every two takbeers; but no specific supplication in between the takbeers has been preserved from him. However it is mentioned upon Ibn Mas’ood that he said: ‘One praises Allaah, exalts Him and sends Salaah (du’a) upon the Prophet (SAW). 80
I say, what I said regarding the issue of raising the hands with the takbeers, ie. that the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAW).
Fifth: When he (SAW) completed the takbeers he would begin reciting the opening of the Book (al-Faatiha), and after it read: “QAAAAF, by the Glorious Qur’aan…” [Sura Qaaf] in one of the two rak’ahs and in the other rak’ah: “The Hour has drawn closer, and the moon has been cleft asunder…” [ Soorah al-Qamar] 81 And he sometimes read in the two rak’ahs: “Glorify the name of your Lord the Most High…” [Soorah al-‘Ala] and, “Has there come to you the narration of the Overwhelming. . .” [Soorah al-Ghashiyyah] 82
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) said: “Both have been authentically reported from the Prophet (SAW) and nothing other than this has been authentically reported fron him.”
Sixth: The manner of the remaining part of the ‘Eid prayer is like other customary prayers – it does not differ a single bit from them.84 Seventh: One who missed the ‘Eid prayer in congregation should pray two rak’ahs. Imaam al-Bukhaaree (may Allaah have mercy upon him), said: “Chapter: If one misses the ‘Eid (prayer) he should pray two rak’ahs”85
Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in Fath-ul-Baaree (2/550) after this heading: “This heading has two rulings: a) The legality of making up the ‘Eid prayer if the congregation ‘Eid prayer is missed, regardless of whether one is compelled to miss it or it happens out of choice. b) That one makes up two rak’ahs.”86 and ‘Ataa said: “If he misses the ‘Eid prayer he prays two rak’ahs.”
The renowned scholar Wali-ullaah ad-Dihlawee said: “This is the opinion of ash-Shaafi’ee, that if a man misses the ‘Eid prayer with the Imaam, he should pray two rak’ahs so that he can catch some of the merits of the ‘Eid prayer, even though he will miss the merits of the congregational (prayer) with the Imaam. As for the Hanafees, then their opinion is that there is no Qadaaa87 (making up) of the ‘Eid prayer. Thus if one misses the prayer with the Imaam, one has missed it”88
Al-Maalik said in Muwatta89 “All those who pray the two ‘Eid prayers for themselves – man or woman – then I say that they should make seven takbeers in the first rak’ah, before recitation and five takbeers in the second before recitation.”
The one late for the ‘Eid prayer prays what he has missed in its manner, just as other prayers.
Eight: The takbeer is a sunnah. The prayer, without difference ofopinion90, is not nullified by intentionally leaving it or by forgetfully leaving the takbeer. However those who leave it (the takbeer) have without doubt opposed the sunnah of the Prophet (SAW).
The Sermon After The Prayer
The Sunnah with respect to the ‘Eid sermon is that it should be after the prayer. Al-Bukhaaree has titled a chapter in his book, Saheeh, with: “Chapter: The sermon after the ‘Eid prayer.”91
Ibn ‘Abbaas said:”I witnessed ‘Eid with Allaah’s Messenger (SAW), Aboo Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with them all) and they all used to pray before the sermon.”92
Ibn ‘Umar reported:”That the Prophet (SAW), Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar used to pray the ‘Eid prayer before the sermon.”93
Wali-ullaah ad-Dihlawee, when explaining the previous chapter headings of al-Bukhaaree said: 94 “i.e. this is the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW) and that which was acted upon by the rightly guided Khulafaa. The changes that occurred – I mean bringing the sermon before the prayer, which is based on analogous deductions from the Friday prayer – is an innovation that emanated from Marwaan.”95
Imaam at-Tirmidhee96 said: “The people of knowledge, from the Prophet’s Companions and others, acted upon this, that the ‘Eid prayer precedes sermon. It is said that the first person to give the sermon before the prayer was Marwaan bin Hakam.”97
The Sermon and Choosing To Attend It
Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (SAW) used to proceed to the musallaa on the day of ‘Eidul-Fitr and ‘Adhaa and the first thing that he would begin with was the prayer. After the prayer he would move and stand in front of the people – the people being seated in their rows – and he would admonish, advise and command them …”98
The ‘Eid sermon is just like all other sermons – opened by praising and exalting Allaah, the Mighty and Sublime.
Ibn al-Qayyim said: “He (SAW) used to begin all his sermons by praising Allaah. However not a single hadeeth has been preserved from him saying that he used to begin the ‘Eid sermons with takbeer. Rather Ibn Majah relates in his book as-Sunan99 upon the authority of S’ad al-Quradh the Prophet’s mu’adhin* – that he (SAW) used to make the takbeer fre quently in between the sermons, and he (SAW), also made the takbeer in the ‘Eid sermons. However this does not indicate that he (SAW) used to begin the ‘Eid sermon with it …”100
It has not been authentically reported in the sunnah that the sermon of ‘Eid is two sermons divided by sitting down between them!
Since, that which is found regarding this is a very weak hadeeth transmitted by al-Bazzar in his Musnad [No.53 from the Musnad of Sa’d] from his teacher, Abdullaah Ibn Shabeeb with his chain of narration of Sa’d (may Allaah be pleased with him). That the Prophet used to give two sermons and seperate them by sitting down (between them).
Al-Bukhaaree said about Abdullaah ibn Shabeeb, “He is munkar-ul-hadeeth (makes a hadeeth Munkar)”
Thus the ‘Eid sermon remains on the original basis, which is as one sermon.
Attending the ‘Eid sermon is not obligatory, unlike the ‘Eid prayer, which is obligatory. This is due to what is established from ‘Abdullaah ibn Saa’ib, who said: “I witnessed ‘Eid with the Prophet (SAW) and when he finished praying he (SAW) said: ‘Verily we shall give a sermon, so whoever wishes to stay for the sermon then let him stay and whoever wishes to depart then let him depart'”101
Ibn al-Qayyim102 (may Allaah have mercy upon him), said: “He (SAW) gave permission for those who attended the ‘Eid prayer to stay for the sermon or to leave.”103
‘Eid and Jum’ah coinciding on the same day
Aboo Dawood (1070) an-Nasaa’ee (3/194) Ibn Majah (1310) Ibn Khuzaimah (1474) ad-Daarimee ( 1620) Ahmad (4/372) transmit from Iyaas ibn Abee Ramlah as-Shaamee who said: “I witnessed Mu’aaweeyah ibn Abee – Have you witnessed the coinciding of two ‘Eids on the same day with the Prophet (SAW) ? He replied: Yes. So he said: What did he do? He replied: He (SAW) prayed ‘Eid and then gave permission not to pray Jum’ah, and said: ‘He amongst you who desires to pray them,pray'” 104
In this area Aboo Hurairah and others report from the Prophet (SAW). The Companions also act according to this.
Abdur-Razzaq reports in his Musannaf (3/305), Ibn abee Shaibah in his Musannaf (2/187) with a authentic chain of narration from ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib that two ‘Eids coincided on the same day so he said: “He who wishes to pray Juma’h then let him do so and he who wishes to sit then let him do so”. And in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree is a similar narration from Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him).
In Sunan Aboo Dawood (1072), Musannaf of Abdur-Razzaq (no.5725) with an authentic chain of narration from Ibn Zubair that he said: “Two ‘Eids coincided on the same day and so they were both joined together by making them one. He prayed on the day of Juma’h two raka’hs in the morning and he did not add to them until he prayed Asr Prayer …”
Ash-Shawkanee said in Nayl al-Awtaar (3/348) after this narration: “It is apparent that he did not pray Zhur prayer”
It also shows that if for any (permissible) reason, the Jum’ah prayer is cancelled it is not obligatory for the person for whom it has be cancelled to pray the Zhur prayer and ‘Ataa held this opinion.
Thus it is apparent that those who hold this opinion are those who say that the Jum’ah prayer is the origin. You are well aware of what He obligated over his servants on the day of Jum’ah, and that is the Jum ‘ah Prayer. Thus making the Zhur prayer obligatory upon a person who leaves it i.e. Jum’ah, either due to a permissible excuse or otherwise is in need of evidence and there is no evidence which is worthy of being adhered to from that which I know.
The Greetings and Congratulations of ‘Eid
Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah was asked about the greetings/congratulations of ‘Eid 105 so he answered: “As for the greetings on the day of ‘Eid, then it is by saying to one another when meeting after the prayer:
May Allaah accept it from you and us and may Allaah make it return to you, and other things of this nature. Indeed it has been reported that a group of the Companions used to do this. The A’immah, like Ahmad and others permitted this.
However Ahmad said: ‘I do not initiate greeting anybody but if they begin I answer them and that is because answering a greeting is obligatory. As for initiating greetings (of ‘Eid) then it is not from the requested Sunnah and neither is it from that which is prohibited. Therefore whosoever does it, has a precedent and whosoever leaves it, also has a precedent – and Allaah knows best'” 106
Haafidh Ibn Hajr said: 107 “We have related in “Mahaamiliyaat” with a chain of narration that is hasan, from Jubair bin Nufair, who said: The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (SAW) used to, when they met on the day of ‘Eid used to say to each other:
“Taqabbala Allaaha minnaa wa minkum” – ‘May Allaah accept it from you and us.”
Ibn Qudaamah mentioned in al-Mughnee (2/259) that Muhammed ibn Ziyaad said: “I was with Abee Umaamah al-Baahilee and other companons of theProphet (SAW ) and when they returned from the ‘Eid they said to each other:
“Taqabbala Allaaha minnaa wa minkum” – ‘May Allaah accept it from you and us.”
Ahmad said the chain of narration of the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah is good, 108 as for the saying, by the general populus of muslims, who say to each other;
74. Reported by Ahmad ( l/37) an-Nasaa’ee (3/183), at-Tahaawee in Sharh Ma’aanee al-Aathaar (l/421), al-Baihaqee (3/200) and its chain of narration is saheeh.
*The first takbeer made by the praying person, and by which he begins the prayer.
75. Reported by Aboo Daawood (1150), Ibn Maajah (1280), Ahmad (6/70), al-Baihaqee(3/287) and its isnaad is saheeh. Note: The Sunnah with respect to the takbeer is that it be before reciting, as in the hadeeth reported by Aboo Daawood (1152), Ibn Maajah (1278), Ahmad (2/180), from ‘Amr bin Shuiaib from his father, from his grandfather, who said: “The Messenger of Allaah made takbeers in the ‘Eid prayer – seven times in the first (rak’at) he then recited and then went into ruku’, he then made sujood and then he stood up and made five takbeers and then recited, he then made takbeer and ruku’ he, then made sujood…” The hadeeth is hasan due to its supporting narrations. Refer to lrwaa al-Ghaleel (3/108-112). And I say: That which contradicts this is not authentic as has been explained by the renowned scholar Ibn al-Qayyim in Zaad-ul-Ma’ add ( l/443-444).
76. He related the names holding this view, as in Sharh-us-Sunnah (4/309). Refer to Majmoo al-Fataawaa (24/220-221).
77. It is essential to refer to Irwaa al-Ghaleel (3/112-114).
78. Zaad-ul-Ma’aad ( 1/441 ).
79. Reported by al-Baihaqee (3/291) and its isnaad is strong.
80. Zaad-ul-Ma’ad ( 1/443 )
81. Reported by Muslim (891 ) an-Nasaa’ee (3/84). at-Tirmidhee (534). Ibn Maajah (1282) on the authority of Aboo Waaqid al-Laithee (may Allaah have mercy upon him).
82. Reported by Muslim (878), at-Tirmidhee (533) an-Nasaa’ee (3/184). Ibn Maajah(1281) from the hadeeth of Nu’maun bin Basheer.
83. Zaadul-Ma’aad (1/443). Refer to Majallat-ul-Azhar (7/194).
84. For knowledge about it with its proofs refer to what our teacher al-Albaanee has written in his “delightful book” the ‘Prophet’s Prayer Describes” – it is printed and widely available. Publishers note: Available in English published by al-Haneef Publications. Also refer back to my treatise at-Tazkirah fi Sifaat Wudoo wa Salaut-un-Nabee for it is concise.
85. Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1/134-135 Indian print).
86. Same as previous footnote.
87. This is not called Qadaa unless the time for praying has elapsed.
88. Sharh Taraajim Abwaab-al-Bukhaaree (P.80) and Refer to al-Majmoo (5/27-29).
89. Number 592 by the narration of Aboo Mus’ab.
90. Al-Mughnee (21244) of Ibn Qudaamah.
91. Kitaab-ul-‘Eidain chapter 8 and refer to Fath-ul-Baaree (2/453).
92. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (962) Muslim (884) and Ahmad ( 1/331, 346).
93. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (963) Muslim (888), at-Tirmidhee (531), an-Nasaa’ee (3/183), Ibn Maajah (1276) and Ahmad(2/12,38).
94. Sharh Taraajim Abwaab-al-Bukhaaree (P.79).
95. He is Marwaan bin Hakam bin Abee al-‘Aas, the ‘Amawee Khaleefah. He died in the year 65A.H. His biography is present in al-‘Alaam (7/207) by az-Zirkilee.
96. In his Sunan (2/411).
97. Refer to Kitaab-ul-Umm (l/235-236) by 1maam ash-Shaafi’ee and to ‘Aaridaa-ul-Ahwaadhee (313-6) by Qaadee Ibn-al-Arabee al-Maalikee.
98. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (956) Muslim (889), an-Nasaa’ee (3/187), al-Baihaqee (3/280) and Ahmad (3/36,54).
99. Number (1287) in his Sunan and reported by al-Haakim (3/607), al-Baihaqee(3/299) from Abdur-Rahmaan bin S’ad bin ‘Ammar bin S’ad al-Muadhin: reported to me by my father, from my grandfather… and he mentioned the hadeeth. The isnaad for the hadeeth is da’eef (weak) as Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn S’ad is a weak narrator and his father and grandfather are majhool (unknown). *Translator’s note: The title (muaddin) given to one who gives the call to prayer.
100. Zaad-ul-Ma’aad ( I /447-448 ).
101. Reported by Aboo Daawood (1155), an-Nasaa’ee (3/185). Ibn Maajah (1290) al-Haakim (1/295) and its isnaad is saheeh refer to Irwaa al-GhaleeI (3196-98).
102. Zaad-ul-Ma’aad (1 /448 ).
103. Refer to Majmoo al-Fataawaa by Shaikh-ul-Islaam (24/214).
104. This hadeeth has been declared saheeh by the scholar of hadeeth, Imaam ‘Alee ibn al-Madenee, as in Talkhees al-Habeer (2194).
105. Majmoo al-Fataawaa (24/253) .
106. as-Suyootee in his treatise Wusool al-Amaanee bi Usool at-Tahannee has gathered the sayings from many of the Salaf mentioning the ‘Eid greetings. It is printed within his book al-Haawee lil-Fataawaa (1/81-82), refer back to it and to the book al-Masno’o fee M’arifatil-Hadeeth al Mawdoo’ (P.88) by the renowned scholar Alee al-Qaree and the footnotes by its checker.
107. Fath-ul-Baaree (2/446).
108. Refer to al-Juwhar an-Naqee (3/320).
109. Soorah Baqarah 2:61